The Marathi language is predominantly spoken in Maharashtra (India) and neighboring areas. It is the 19th most spoken language in the world and 4th most spoken language in India. Marathi was the court language of Seuna dynasty kings of Devgiri in Maharashtra. Many religious texts have been written in Marathi, primarily to convey the religious knowledge to common people.
Most of the literature of Varkari Sampraday is in Marathi. In medieval period saint Dyaneshwar, saint Eknath has composed religious texts in Marathi. The treaties composed in Marathi on Bhagwad Gita saint Dyaneshwar is known as Dyaneshwari. Saint Tukaram also wrote many Abhang in the Marathi language.
With the rise of Maratha Empire, the importance of Marathi increased. Under the rule of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, the use of Marathi was encouraged in administration rather than the Persian language.
In the colonial period, the Christian missionaries translated Bible in Marathi. These translations are done by William Carey, the American Marathi mission, and the Scottish missionaries. the first Marathi newspaper Durban was started by Balshastri Jambhekar in 1832. The Marathi poet Keshavasut published his first poem in the year 1885. After Indian independence Marathi was accorded the status of a scheduled language on the national level. A novel Yayati by Kandekar is one of the most works done in Marathi in the 20th century. Vijay Tendulkar, P.L.Deshpande, P.K. Atre & Prabodhankar Thackeray were the notable Marathi writers of the 20th century.
Jihadi Boli, Southern Indian Marathi, Varhadiare are few of the Dialects of Marathi language.
Marathi is written in different scripts such as Devanagari, Balbodh, and Modi script. The reference of Devnagri script is found on the 11th-century inscriptions on stone and copper plates. Most of the records from the medieval period and until 1950 are in Modi Script. Even today also we see some official records are in Modi script which requires the language expert to read it.
Marathi phonology and grammar is similar to other Indo-Aryan languages.
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar the noted freedom fighter had coined Marathi words for words from the English language. Marathi borrows a lot of its vocabulary from Sanskrit. Marathi Language Day is celebrated on February 27. There are many organizations for the regulation, promotion, and enrichment of the Marathi language.